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Citing Sources (Citation Styles): APA Style

APA Format

Many Social Science disciplines use APA format for citing sources.  The most recent guide is the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological AssociationSee our additional page to format in-text or parenthetical citations.  

The following examples of the most commons types of citations are based on the 7th edition (2020) of the APA manual.  For additional examples, consult chapter 10 (pages 313–352) of the APA Manual or browse the APA Style online guide at 

Single Author

Ball, P. (2001). Bright earth: Art and the invention of color. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.     

Multiple Authors

Bird, K., & Martin, J. S. (2005). American prometheus: The triumph and tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. Alfred A. Knopf.


Silverstein, T. (Ed). (1974). Sir Gawain and the green knight. University of Chicago Press.

Chapter in a Book

Demos, J. (2001). Real lives and other fictions: Reconsidering Wallace Stegner's Angle of Repose. In M. Carnes (Ed.), Novel history: Historians and novelists confront America's past (and each other), (pp. 132–145). Simon and Schuster.

Journal Article

Burns, S. (2005). Ordering the artist's body: Thomas Eakins' acts of self-portrayal. American Art, 19(1), 90–102.

Journal Article with DOI

Murdock, L., & Hobbs, J. (2011). Picture me playing: Increasing pretend play dialogue of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(7), 870–878.

Journal Article Without a DOI,
Not From an Academic Research Database

Tilak, J.G. (2002). Education and poverty. Journal of Human Development, 3(2), 191–207.

Thesis or Dissertation

Erickson, C. (2008).Critical multiculturalism and preservice teacher education [Doctoral dissertation, University of West Florida]. Florida Digital Archive.

Web Page (not fitting into another category)

Mikkelson, D. (2001, December 18). Did Coca-Cola invent the modern image of Santa Claus? Snopes.

YouTube Video


TEDx Talks. (2016, December 29). Lessons from a thousand years of island sustainability | Sam ʻOhu Gon III, PhD | TEDxMaui [Video]. YouTube.

APA 7th Edition